slike/paintings | skulpture/sculptures | o autoru/about author | galerija i kontakt/gallery & contact | ostalo/misc.  

predgovor kataloga
corpus christi
dubrovnik - osijek - zagreb - vara┼żdin - ─Źakovec - 1991



predgovor kataloga
crte┼żi
zagreb - 1986



predgovor kataloga
lokomotive
zagreb - firenze - 1976



predgovor kataloga
otpad i signali
zagreb - osijek - sarajevo - zadar - 1984-1985-1986



predgovor kataloga
ples kiborga
zrenjanin - subotica - sombor - pan─Źevo - sremska mitrovica - 1985



predgovor kataloga
slike nizašto
vara┼żdin - dubrovnik - 1988




Nije nam poznat slikar koji je prvi umjetni─Źki relevantno naslikao motiv ┼żeljeznice i tako otvorio novu ikonografsku stranicu u povijesti umjetnosti, koja ─çe biti zna─Źajna u ┼íifriranju novog duha vremena i postati metaforom za najdublja humanisti─Źka pitanja koja ─Źovjek industrijske civilizacije postavlja samome sebi. Postoji u Nacionalnoj galeriji u Londonu Turnerova slika Ki┼ía, para i brzina - ┼żeljeznica ┬╗Great Western┬ź (1844). Kroz beskrajni, tipi─Źno tumerovski pejza┼ż prolazi vlak sav utonuo u obojenu paru, nekonzistentan, vizionaran kao i mnogo poznatiji Tumerovi jedrenjaci, ┼íto poput orahove ljuske lelujaju u maglenoj beskona─Źnosti neba i oceana. Ovaj veliki engleski romanti─Źar volio je ┼żeljeznicu - za razliku od mnogih njegovih suvremenika kao ┼íto su Wordsworth, Ruskin, Dickens, Delacroix koji su u njoj vidjeli anonimnog i smrtonosnog Moloha industrijske revolucije. Poslije smrti Turnerove ova je slika interpretirana kao osuda zastra┼íuju─çe mehani─Źke ru┼żno─çe koja je preplavila prirodu. To je i trenutak prve me─Ĺunarodne izlo┼żbe industrijskih proizvoda u Londonu (1851), ra─Ĺanje ideologije o mehanizaciji suvremenog svijeta i po─Źetak strastvenih rasprava o neizbje┼żnom sukobu izme─Ĺu umjetnosti i industrije, umjetnosti i tehnike.

Modernizam teme kakav je, bez sumnje, Turner postigao u spomenutoj slici privukao je Moneta za njegova prvog boravka u Londonu, i u tim okolnostima treba tra┼żiti klicu nastanka serije platna koje je ovaj impresionista slikao na stanici Saint-Lazare izme─Ĺu 1876. i 1878. Kao ni Turner, ni Monet slikarski ne meditira o biti nove ere ma┼íinizma u koju je ─Źovjek povijesno zakora─Źio. Lokomotive su tek crna, neodre─Ĺena ─Źudovi┼íta obavijena oblacima dima koji se u sivim ili plavi─Źastim spiralama uzdi┼żu podno visokih vitra┼ża kolodvorskih lukobrana ili slobodno put neba. Ti oblaci dima, a ne lokomotiva, glavna su tema slike - njihovo prelijevanje u duginim bojama, vrtoglava senzacija ┼íto je pobu─Ĺuju, iluminiscencija ┼íto izbija iz njihova kome┼íanja.

Tema vlaka privu─çi ─çe osobito talijanskog futuristu Gina Severinija. U slici Vlak crvenog kri┼ża (1914) iz Guggenheim muzeja u New Yorku juri ┼żeljezni─Źka kompozicija kroz kubisti─Źki pejza┼ż. Iz lokomotive kuljaju pravilni baloni dima. Sama kompozicija slike nije osobito dinami─Źka, ali ikonsko zna─Źenje ┼żeljeznice cilja nesumnjivo na ono ┼íto je futuristima bilo najva┼żnije - brzina. Metafizi─Źar Giorgio de Chirico koristi, me─Ĺutim, simbolizam vlaka da nazna─Źi turobni sentiment rastanka. Poput uske trake vremena prolazi vlak na slikama nastalim izme─Ĺu 1912. i 1914. godine, svagda s one strane zida pustih trgova poja─Źavaju─çi tako ukletu atmosferu bezvremenosti, nepokretnosti, tajanstva postojanja.

Jo┼í se u dva kruga zamr┼íenog labirinta moderne umjetnosti izrazitije javlja tema vlaka - me─Ĺu slikarima Nove stvarnosti ili Nove objektivnosti i me─Ĺu ameri─Źkim preci-zionistima ili kuborealistima. I doista, ┼íto bi drugo bile panoramske vizure nove ─Źovjekove stvarnosti ako ne metalni svijet industrijskog masinizma? Ali ove slikare taj novi svijet vi┼íe fascinira nego - kao futuriste - ideolo┼íki mobilizira. Nisu poneseni duhom stroja, ┬╗ma┼íinskom estetikom┬ź, poput Legera. Pripadnici Nove stvarnosti bili su opsjednuti ┼żeljezni─Źkim mostovima. Do magi─Źnosti, do nadrealnosti. Precizionist Charles Sheeler slika ┬╗kubisti─Źku┬ź mehaniku pogonskih kota─Źa lokomotive u krupnom planu. Istu optiku primijenio je i Marijan Detoni u grafi─Źkoj mapi Tra─Źnice (1941).

Izvucimo neke pouke. Za Turnera je ┼żeljeznica koncentrat energije ┼íto poput o┼ítrog sje─Źiva prolazi kroz njedra prirode, pribrojiv┼íi svoju snagu snagama uzvi┼íenih i zastra┼íuju─çih kozmi─Źkih sila, toliko dragih romanti─Źarima. Za Moneta je lokomotiva ─Źudesni agregat spektakularnih i spektralnih svjetlosnih i koloristi─Źkih senzacija i impresija kakve su tra┼żili impresionisti. Za Severinija je vlak metafora brzine i sprovodnik orgijasti─Źkog futuristi─Źkog uklju─Źivanja u totalnu akciju. Za Sheelera je kubisti─Źki sklop poluga pogonskih kota─Źa lokomotive zadivljuju─çi simbol industrijskog svijeta u punom zamahu i sjajan motiv u rje─Źniku estetike precizionizma. U svakom od navedenih primjera lokomotiva nije tek ono ┼íto opti─Źki jest; ona je transformirana do granica umjetnikova stila, ona izra┼żava u ┼íirokim smisaonim obrisima poetiku i ideologiju kolektivnog smjera, pokreta ili pravca kojemu je slikar pripadao.

Slikarstvo Nenada Opa─Źi─ça zaodjenuto je i no┼íeno svijetom ┬╗kiborga┬ź, parnih lokomotiva i arsenalom njenih ┬╗anatomskih┬ź dijelova. Do te mjere da su postali primarnom i gotovo isklju─Źivom temom u posljednjih desetak godina njegova rada. Postoji autobiografsko-psiholo┼íki sloj: djetinjstvo je proveo uz ┼żeljeznicu, uz lo┼żionice i lokomotive, ┬╗te metalne mje┼íine, crne kolose pune straha┬ź. Postoji slikarski milje: Majstorska radionica K. Hegedu┼íi─ça i jedna upravo uspostavljena tradicija od strane generacije slikara koji zavr┼íavaju postdiplomski studij na toj otvorenoj ┼íkoli - linija figuracije s ekspresionisti─Źkim zamahom novoosvojenog samopokazivanja unutarnjeg svijeta subjekta ili vanjskog svijeta objekta, onako kako se to nadasve manifestiralo u slikarstvima Nives Kavuri─ç-Kurtovi─ç, Ismara Mujezinovi─ça, Ive Fri┼í─Źi─ça, Zlatka Kauzlari─ça-Ata─Źa. Nakon Novih tendencija i nasuprot njima, njihovoj scijentisti─Źki obojenoj ideologiji izgradnje novog vizualnog poretka svijeta, spomenuti krug mladih te┼żi ┼żestokom individualnom sudaru sa svijetom ┼żivota, psihi─Źkim i socijalnim tenzijama koje su osje─çali sagledavaju─çi njihove proturje─Źnosti. U atmosferi tih umjetni─Źkih previranja Opa─Źi─ç nedvojbeno osna┼żuje i ubrzava svoje slikarsko sazrijevanje. Ali mogli bismo govoriti i o sukladnosti tih te┼żnji s vlastitim intencijama i impulsima. Naime, u tom ─Źasu on raspola┼że znatnim zalihama ─Źistog ekspresionizma koje je stekao u doba svoje neobi─Źne prethistorije slikarskog ┬╗vunderkinda┬ź.

Sklon od po─Źetka slikanju sadr┼żaja no┼íenih sna┼żnim emocionalnim uzbu─Ĺenjima, tipi─Źnim ekspresionisti─Źkim tenzijama forme i boje, Opa─Źi─ç u vrijeme svoga postdiplomskog studija (1972-1975) prenosi to iskustvo - da tako ka┼żemo - sa individualnih ljudskih sudbina na univerzalno ─Źovjekovo raspolo┼żenje.

On tra┼żi likovni idiom, slikarski adekvat kojima bi izrazio samu strukturu ─Źovjekova bivstvovanja, udes njegova vremenovanja. ─îovjekov je svijet ude┼íen strojno. To zna─Źi da je u me─Ĺuvremenu tehnika postala bitno strojna, a prirodne sile, pred kojima su strasno drhtali romanti─Źari, Turner, javljaju se u ─Źovjekovu vidokrugu, sklopljene u stroj, jo┼í samo kao pogon, neprestano kretanje - mogli bismo kazati - dola┼żenje i odla┼żenje, poput ┼żeljeznice.

Opa─Źi─çev idiom, jo┼í tamo 1973. godine, postao je parni stroj. U posve apstraktnom prostoru izdr┼żava ma┼íina svoj lik; svoju snagu, svoju masivnost, fantastiku svojih antro-pomorfnih preobrazbi. Ne ispu┼íta balone dima, ne kupa se u oblacima pare; iskazuje tek svoju zamr┼íenu i nabreklu muskulaturu, crnu, sivu, sumornu. Dramati─Źnu. I tu se za─Źinje pri─Źa. Pri─Źa o prega┼żenom, pri─Źa o kiborgu, prizori razornih ─Źeli─Źnih i ko┼ítanih udesa. Slikar se samo naoko slu┼żi tehnikom i optikom hiperrealizma. Nije napustio imaginaciju, zadr┼żao je ekspresionisti─Źki nerv. ┼átovi┼íe, koristi se fantastikom sraza nespojivog. Brutalizmom scenarija i aktualno┼í─çu poruke izborio je Opa─Źi─ç status anga┼żiranog i pobunjenog, lako samo prolazno, ipak se u jednom trenutku na┼íao zajedno sa grupom Biafra.

Ali vrijeme njegova slikarskog napredovanja kretat ─çe se u drugom pravcu. Njegova ikonografija raspada se na sastavne dijelove. Nagomilane sinje i osovine, pokretni i nepokretni zglobovi i sastavci parostroja, demontirani, odba─Źeni i zaboravljeni fascinantna su mrtva priroda moderne tehnike na njenom putu beskrajnog napredovanja.

Rije─Ź je, bez sumnje, o novoj fazi u Opa─Źi─çevu slikarstvu. Sugestiju slijepog brutalizma zamijenila je sada gluha melankolija, ─Źak stanoviti intimizam ┼íto utopljuje hladnu masivnost nepokretnih i rasklopljenih elemenata mrtvoga stroja. Tajna je odba─Źenih stvari da sti─Źu fluid poeti─Źnosti - iskustvo dobro poznato u avangardnoj umjetnosti 20. stolje─ça. Umjesto fotografskog islikavanja i iscrtavanje detalja, slikar se sve vi┼íe slu┼żi tehnikom fotokola┼ża. Slikanje preuzima funkciju povezivanja rasutih ikoni─Źkih podataka, stvaranja stanovite jedinstvene atmosfere, status vehementnosti unikatne artisti─Źke intervencije. Karakteristi─Źno je da se u novoj situaciji dekomponirane kaoti─Źne metalne ima┼żinerije javlja sve vidljivije i otvorenije program pa┼żljivog komponiranje slike. Opa─Źi─ç se u tu svrhu slu┼żi geometrijom ─Źistih ploha, traka i pojaseva neutralne, zatvorene i srogo reducirane game boje. Najposlije, u novijim i najnovijim radovima autor osim formalnog pro┼íiruje i tematski krug. Neo─Źekivano djeluju konjske glave (vi┼íe lubanje nego glave) u scenariju ┬╗mrtvih priroda┬ź. Mogli bismo govoriti o blagom nadrealisti─Źkom ┼íoku koji one izazivaju, nadne┼íene nad metalne stogove bezimenih mehani─Źkih oblika. U tom se slu─Źaju radi o tvrdom ili budnom nadrealizmu iskovanom na poja─Źanom realizmu nove civilizacijske slike stvarnosti. U varijacijama signala i signalizacije ve─ç iskazana strast za komponiranjem i slikarskim konstruiranjem stopila se sa ┬╗konstruktivno┼í─çu┬ź motiva, narastaju─çi - nakon svega - do granica opsesije.

Zdenko Rus

We do not know which painter was the first to give artistic relevance to the motif of the railway, thus turning a new iconographic page in art history, setting up a new code for the spirit of the times, creating a metaphor for the deepest humanistic self-questionings of industrial man. There is a painting by Turner in The National Gallery in London entitled Rain, Steam and Speed - fhe Great Western Railway (1844). A train is passing through Turner's characteristic boundless landscape, enveloped in coloured steam, immaterial, visionary, just like his much more famous sailing ships hovering like nutshells in the misty infinity of sky and ocean. This great English roman-tic loved trains and differed in this from contemporaries such as Wordsworth, Ruskin, Dickens, Delacroix who saw them as the anonymous and deadly Molochs of the industrial revolution. After Turner's death this painting was interpreted as condemnation of the frightening mec-hanical ugliness which' in overpowering nature. That was the time of the first exhibition of industrial products in London 1851, the birth of the ideology of mechanization of the modern world, the beginning of passionate disputes about the inevitable conflict between art and industry, art and technology.

The modernity of Turner's theme attracted Monet during his first stay in London and was the initial inspiration for the series of paintings executed by this impressionist at the Gare St Lazare between 1876 and 1878, Dust like Turner, Monet does not meditate about the historical implications of the Machiene Era. His locomotives are un-defined black monsters surrounded by clouds of smoke rising in grey or bluish spirals towards the high glass arches of the station or into the open skies. It is these smoke clouds rather then the locomotives which consti-tute the main theme of the painting - shimmering in ali the colours of the spectrum, inducing a sense of dizzi-ness, dazzling us with their luminous tumult.

The train theme was especially dear to the Italian futurist Gino Severini. In his Red Cross Train (1914), from the Guggenhein Museum in New York, a train is speeding through a cubist landscape. Symmetrical balloons of smoke are rising from the locomotive. The composition of the painting is not too dynamic, but the iconic meaning of the train theme certainly points at what was upper-most in the futurist idea - speed. The metaphysical inspiration of Giorgio de Chirico, however, uses the train symbol to suggest the sadness of parting. In paintings executed between 1912 and 1914 his trains seem to travel the narrow road of time, beyond deserted squares, creating an atmosphere of timelessness, inertia, mystery.

Two groups have added aspects of this theme to the complex maze of modem art: some painters of New Reality or New Objectivity and some of the American Precisionists or Cubo-Realists. Indeed, what better vehi-cle for a panoramic vision of man's new reality than the metallic world of industrial machinism? For these painters, however, this new world is a matter of fascination rather than ideology, and this sets them apart from the Futurists. They are not inspired by the ┼ípirit of the mac-hine, and its aesthetic, like Leger. The followers of New Reality were obsessed by railway bridges, placing them in an aura of magic, of the surreal. The precisionist Charles Sheeler painter the ┬╗cubist┬ź mechanics of locomotive wheels in close detail. The same close-up technique was used by Marijan Detoni in his portfolio entitled Rails (1941).

Let us dravn some conclusions. For Turner the railway was a concentration of energy which enters knife-like into the bosom of nature, adding its might to that of the frightening and transcendent cosmic powers so dear to the romantics. For Monet the locomotive is a magic ag-gregate of spectacular and spectral sensations and im-pressions of light and colour sought by the impressionists. For Severini the train is a metaphor of speed, the engineer of orgiastic futuristic participation in total action. For Sheeler the cubist arrangemdnt of locomotive wheels and levers was a fascinating symbol of the industrial world in full swing, a brilliant motif in the dictionary of precisionist aesthetics. In each of these examples the locomotive in not limited to its factual optical existence; it is transformed within the limits of the artist's style, it expresses in broad ideational strokes the poetics and ideology of that collective tendency or movement to which the painter belonged.

The painting of Nenad Opa─Źi─ç is inspired by the world of the ┬╗cyborg┬ź, the steam locomotive and the arsenal of its ┬╗anatomical┬ź parts to such a degree that they have become the primary and nearly exclusive theme of his painting in this decade. There is a psychological autobio-graphical point to make: his childhood is connected to the railway, the proximity of firerooms and locomotives, ┬╗those metal monsters, black colossi inspiring fear┬ź. There is a professional background: Krsto Hegedu┼íi─ç's work-shop and the newly shaped tradition of a generation of painters completing their master course in that liberal school - the line of new figuration coloured by expres-sionism, revealing the inner world of the subject or the outside world of the object, primarily as manifested in the painting of Nives Kavuri─ç-Kurtovi─ç, Ismar Mujezinovi─ç, Ivo Fri┼í─Źi─ç, Zlatko Kauzlari─ç-Ata─Ź. Corning after the New Tendencies and in opposition to them and their scienti-stic ideology which aimed at a new visual world order, these young painters sought a violent individual clash with life and the psychic and social tensions they felt, aware of their contradictions. Opa─Źi─ç's development and maturing as a painter was undoubtedly prompted by such a turbulent artistic atmosphere. We could also sug-gest that the tendencies we have just described were complementary with his own impulses and intentions. At that point Opa─Źi─ç was swayed by a rich store of pure expressionism accumulated during his exceptional prehi-story as a ┬╗child prodigy┬ź.

Drawn from the very first towards subjects fired by great emotional excitement and typically expresssionist tensions of shapes and colours, Opa─Źi─ç used his years at the Workshop (1972-1975) trying to transpose this experience - as it were - from individual cases into universal human situations. He searched for a visual idiom, a painter's correlative to express the very structure of man's being, the patterns of his existence in time. Man's world is patterned by machines. Technology has been mechanized in its essence, the natural forces which fired the passion of romantics such as Turner now appear on man's horizon incorporated into machines, propelling permanent motion, comings and goings, like trains.

For the past ten years the steam engine has been Opa─Źi─ç's idiom. Surrounded by abstract space, the machine exists in its force, its massive bulk, its fantastic antropomorphic metamorphoses. It does not create balloons of smoke, it is not enveloped in clouds of steam; it exists in the complex and bulging pattern of its muscles, black, grey, mournful. A dramatic pattern. And it is here that the story begins - the story of the victim run over by a train, the story. of the cyborg the scenes of broken metal and broken bones. The painter only seems to be using the technique and optics of hy-perrealism. He has not deserted the imagination, he has retained the expressionist ┼ípirit. He even achieves fantastic effects by juxtaposing incompatibles. The brutalism of his scenario and the topicality of his message have marked Opa─Źi─ç as a committed and rebellious artist. For a moment, he was in unison with the Biafra Group.

However, Opa─Źi─ç's painting developed in another direction. His iconography disintegrated into its constituent parts. Heaps of rails and axles, various parts of the steam engine, often dismantled, discarded and forgotten, constitute a fascinating still life - modem technology in its unrelenting progress.

This represents undoubtedly a new phase in Opa─Źi─ç's painting. The suggestion of blind bru-talism has been replaced by dull melancholy, a certain intimism has begun to lend some warmth to the massive coldness of the immobile, disassembled elements of a dead machine. The secret of discarded things lies in the poetic aura that they acquire - a well-known finding of avant-garde twentieth century art Instead of photographic attention to detail, painters made increasing use of photo-collage. Painting assumed the function of connec-ting disjointed iconic data, creating a unified atmosphere, making a unique work object of art through vehement artistic intervention. Characteristically, in this new situation created by deconstructed and chaotic metal imagery Opa─Źi─ç began to reaffirm more and more openly and boldly a programme of careful composition. For this pur-pose he resorted to the geometry of pure surfaces, strips and belts of neutral, closed and carefully reduced colour. Along with his formal scope, in his recent works the painter has also broadened his thematic range. Unex-pected is the effect of horses heads (more skulls than heads) in his ┬╗still life┬ź scenarios. We could even speak of a mild surrealistic shock produced by these heads hovering over heaps of nameless mechanical metal sha-pes. These compositions seem to belong to some kind of hard, watchful surrealism, built on the vision of modern civilization offered by the New Realists. Through ali the variations of his signs and symbols, Opa─Źi─ç's passion for composition and artistic structuring has been fused with the ┬╗construction┬ź quality of his motifs, reaching - in the end - the limits of obsession.

Zdenko Rus

sva prava pridr┼żana / all rights reserved